Black Hills, South Dakota – Part V

Finally, the last post for the Black Hills in South Dakota with Rapid City, Jewel Cave, Deadwood, Devils Tower, and a few more sights.

Rapid City

None of the jewelry stores near Custer could replace watch batteries so off to Rapid City we drove. With a new battery and refreshing drinks in hand, we explored the downtown area. John Adams looked thirsty so Jon gave him a sip from his Frappuccino

Jon Making Friends with John Adams

Bronze statues of 43 US Presidents stand on almost every corner of the downtown city blocks earning Rapid City the honor of the “Most Patriotic Best Small Town in the United States.” We had fun guessing who the statues portrayed before we read the plaques. Visit the City of Presidents visitors center for to see the original statues, information on the presidents, and a map.

The City Park was hopping while we were there. On stage groups of children performed while family, friends, and neighbors beat the heat by playing in the water feature or huddling under umbrellas.

Keeping Cool in Rapid City Park

Independent bookstores have a tough time these days keeping the doors open. Diversifying the business model to include jewelry, music, and T-shirts seems to help this store make ends meet.

Again Books & Bazaar

The popularity of brewpubs has done wonders to revitalize run down buildings in older cities. Firehouse Brewery converted the old Rapid City Fire Department building, complete with a 9/11 tribute mural on the side.

Firehouse Brewing Co.

I’ve seen other breweries housed in old firehouses during our travels. Buildings renovated by breweries throughout the country include banks, churches, factories, and old hotels. What would have happened to all those buildings without the popularity of craft beer?

One of the most interesting parts of the city was Art Alley. A one-block alley filled with art painted on the walls of buildings, staircases, and dumpsters. Some of the art expressed a message.

Mural in Art Alley

Others contained cartoon characters in contemplation.

Contemplative Homer

As is often the case with any rules, not all artists obtained the required permit from participating businesses or honored the prohibition against painting stairwells and dumpsters.

Superheros and More
Art Alley Murals

Looks like the owner or tenant of this building gave up the idea of having a pristine canvas on the wall.


Is this considered art?


I liked the detail in this mural of a man.


Art Alley


Although we only stayed a couple of hours, we liked the feel of the town. We encountered friendly people, a thriving downtown scene, and other amenities a population of 73,000 might enjoy. I wouldn’t mind going back and spending more time.

Jewel Cave National Monument

Jewel Cave was the last place on our list to visit before leaving the southern end of the Black Hills. Tickets for the 80-minute scenic cave tour are distributed on a first come, first served basis. We arrived around 10 a.m. and the next available tickets were for the 12:40 p.m. tour. Jewel Cave is not as pretty as other caves we have toured. There aren’t as many stalactites or stalagmites. But the sparkling quartz gives Jewel its own unique beauty.

Quartz Formation in Jewel Cave
Different Formations On Same Wall
Cauliflower, Broccoli, or Jelly Fish?
Great Example of Bacon Drapery Formation

Other tours are available: A 20-minute program, a historic lantern tour, and a wild caving tour, and internship for students. Jewel Cave is the third longest cave in the world, only about 3% of which has been explored. Some people believe it is possible that Jewel Cave and Wind Cave, 20-miles away, are connected.

Roubaix Lake

On Monday, June 26, we drove a short distance to Roubaix Lake Campground in the Black Hills National Forest hoping to snag a campsite for a few nights.


The campground host directed us to the unreserved sites and I think we managed to get the best site in the campground. The large space that overlooked the rest of the campground made it easy to maneuver the fifth wheel in place for a patio view of the forest and no close neighbors.


Upon viewing the lake and learning that the Game Fish and Parks Department had recently stocked trout, Jon found a place to purchase a three-day fishing license.


While Jon went fishing for two days, I enjoyed sticking around the trailer. Although cellular service, Wi-Fi, and electricity were non-existent, I kept busy writing with pen and paper and catching up on my reading backlist. Jon was thrilled to have reeled in one of the biggest trout he has ever caught.


Deadwood and Sturgis

One afternoon we took in the sights at Deadwood and Sturgis. Deadwood was a typical western town complete with gift shops, restaurants, bars and grills, and even a cigar bar below street level.

View From Atop the Parking Structure
Another View from the Parking Structure
This Close to Sturgis a Motorcycle Shop is a Must
Below Street Level, End of Walkway is a Cigar Bar
Candid Street Shot

Sturgis did not impress us. Then again, we arrived on a slow day. Motorcycles, Camaros, or Mustangs did not fill the streets. Perhaps it’s not the city itself that is the attraction, but the rallies that occur several weeks out of the year and the people who attend. Or, maybe we went to the wrong part of town. Only one lone photo to prove we had been there.


Spearfish Canyon Scenic Byway

Fall must be a magical time to drive through Spearfish Canyon. Ponderosa and spruce pines share the Spearfish Creek banks with aspen, birch, and oak trees. The damp rainy weather that accompanied us on our drive coated the leaves and branches with droplets of rain. Layers of limestone in beige or tan, mauve, pink or red hues, sit atop layers of brown sandstone.

Spearfish Canyon Scenic Byway

I had picked out a couple hikes for us to try along the canyon. Unfortunately, the inclement weather kept us in our truck. That is until we came to Bridal Veil Falls where we had to make a stop long enough to dodge the plops of drops to snap a photo.

Bridal Veil Falls in Spearfish Canyon

Sundance, Wyoming, and Longhorn Saloon

After driving through Spearfish Canyon, we drove out to Sundance, Wyoming. This small town is where Harry Longabaugh spent eighteen months in jail for stealing a gun, horse, and saddle from a nearby ranch. Longabaugh continued his criminal activity and later earned the nickname the Sundance Kid. We ate the best burgers and service ever at the Longhorn Saloon and Grill.


Devils Tower National Monument

Devils Tower National Monument was our next stop. The tower was visible for miles as we approached. Several vehicles stopped at this viewpoint to take pictures.

View of Devil’s Tower from Scenic Overlook
Red Canyon Next to Scenic Overlook

We were glad we hadn’t towed our trailer to the monument. Parking was limited at the visitor’s center and not suitable for a truck and trailer rig.

The 1.3-mile loop trail around the base of the formation delivers views of the surrounding area, spots to check out the progress of climbers, and a multitude of perspectives of the tower. Sacred to the Northern Plains Indians and other tribes, it is a place requiring reverence.

Devils Tower

We made it back to the visitor center with only a few raindrops on our heads, but while I was in the restroom, a hailstorm let loose and bombarded me on my way back to the truck.

What caused the geological formation to rise from the landscape with such significance? Geologists agree on what formed the tower, but not how. Visit the National Park Service online for more information.

We had a great time in the Black Hills, but for now, it was time to move on. Next stop? Little Big Horn Battlefield.

Safe Travels

Black Hills, South Dakota – Part IV

Iron Mountain Road & Needles Highway

A trip to the Black Hills is not complete unless visitors drive the Iron Mountain Road and Needles Highway. Designed for motorists to slow down and enjoy the view of the hills and the fresh pine scent of the forest, the 17-mile Iron Mountain Road, constructed in 1933, contains 314 curves, 14 switchbacks, 3 pigtails, 3 tunnels, and 2 splits. The slow pace kept my motion sickness at bay as the road corkscrewed in a 360-degree fashion through the pigtails and the 180-degree switchbacks.

Below is one of the pigtails. Note the asphalt below the bridge and how the road continues through the tunnel.

One of Three Pigtails

The tunnels were so tight I thought for sure we’d scrape the truck on the granite walls.

One of Three Tunnels

Stopping at the turnouts to catch a glimpse of the presidents or peer out at the expanse of forest is a requirement.

Mount Rushmore Seen From Iron Mountain Road
View From One of The Stops, With People Standing on the Foreground Rock

At one stop, we saw the driver of this motorhome considering whether to stuff his rig through the tunnel.

“Should We Try It?” “Sure, Dad. It Will Fit.” “I Don’t Know.”

The motorcyclists made encouraging comments, but the RV started a slow backup process around the curves he had just navigated.

Motorcyclists We Met At Tunnel

One of the motorcyclists said the motorhome found a place to turn around a few yards down the road. I guess the driver of the RV ignored the cannot-miss signs that warned against oversized vehicles, or maybe he didn’t realize how big his unit really was.

Needles Highway came next, another beautiful drive through the green forest, granite spires, and one-way tunnels, on a curvy narrow road.

View of Meadow With Mount Rushmore Rising Behind the Forest
I See A Dragon’s Back. What About You?
Climbers Creep Up Toward the Mouth of This Creature

The Needles Eye is a popular place for taking photos. There are a few parking spots, but they fill up fast during busy times.


Sylvan Lake

After winding our way through the scenic roads, Sylvan Lake surprised us at the end. Ah, a perfect place to stretch our legs.

Sylvan Lake
Sylvan Lake Spillway

The lake was created by Theodore Reder when he built a dam across Sunday Gulch in 1881 and it became part of Custer State Park in 1921. It wasn’t a large lake, but very popular for fishing, swimming, paddleboards, and kayaks. Sylvan Lake Campground offers sites nearby for hike-in, tents, and small RVs and trailers between 25’ and 27’ in length. Interested in something more elegant, try Sylvan Lake Lodge where a couple can also host a wedding.

Custer State Park – Wildlife Loop

The best viewing for animals on Wildlife Loop in Custer State Park is around sunrise or sunset. We opted for another early morning to catch the animals before they hunkered down for the heat of the day. Six o’clock A.M. was slow going when watching the road for signs of deer that might bound out in front of the truck.

One of Many Deer Alongside the Road

Prairie dogs poked their heads out of their burrow or stood on their hind legs as if scouting the horizon for predators. I wondered if there was a hierarchy involved in determining which rodent lived in which neighborhood. And what about their governance structure? Who is in charge? Off to Wikipedia to learn more. I won’t go into the details. If you are interested, click here.

Prairie Dog

At one point, wild burros walked toward us on the road. In their group was one with a white coat. I don’t think I have ever seen a white burro before. Have you?

Gray Burro
White Burro

The buffalo were next. What a sight to watch them amble along a path only they knew existed, nibbling on grass as they traveled.

Herd of Buffalo

The young calves would run up toward the road and stop, look back, and scamper back to the adults. Then they’d repeat their antics, back and forth. They reminded me of our son when he was young. On our hikes, he would run ahead, run back to us, then run ahead again. He must have hiked twice as far as we did.

Young Calves Waiting for Mom and Dad

We watched the buffalo make their way across the road for about a half hour until a certain cow and bull finally made it to the other side. Then the young ones ran ahead. What a sight to watch these powerful beasts. They seemed so docile as they slowly moved forward to their destination until a couple males exerted their dominance and charged at each other. I was sure glad I was safely inside our truck.

Hey. Get Out of Here. That’s My Grass.

Not too far from the buffalo, we spotted a coyote up on a hill.

Coyote Shedding His Winter Coat

I fell in love with the Black Hills on this trip. However, there was one thing I did not care for. The helicopters.

IMG_2532The whop, whop, whop of the blades seemed to follow us everywhere and ruined the ambiance of the Black Hills experience. The aircraft flew overhead at Mount Rushmore and Crazy Horse, while we rode the 1880 Train, as we traveled Iron Mountain and Needles Highway, and at Sylvan Lake.

I don’t begrudge people who want to see the scenery from the air. I’m sure they gain a different perspective of the place. I only wish the helicopters could fly as quietly as an electric car. I prefer to experience nature without a side of whop, whop, whop in the air.

Next up is the final episode of our Black Hills adventure.

Safe Travels

Black Hills, South Dakota – Part III

Crazy Horse Memorial: Respected Tourist Attraction or Rip Off?

I wasn’t sure what to expect from the Crazy Horse Memorial. A woman had told us it was more of a tourist trap. “Why pay for something you can see from the road?” she said. “That family is ripping people off.” It’s true, you can see the memorial from the road, but I had no idea why the family raised the hackles on the back of her neck.


Everyone else told us we had to see it. So, we paid the price of admission, $22 for both of us and only $28.00 for a car with more than two people. Those prices seemed reasonable to me.

Had we only viewed the sculpture from the road, we would have missed learning about the man behind the sculpture, how the memorial came about, and of course the American Indian artifacts and the arts and crafts in the Indian Museum of North America. And I would never have been able to zoom in close enough to capture a view of the work on the mountain.

At 87 feet and 6 inches, Crazy Horse’s face dwarfs the construction equipment and crew. Between and below the red and yellow pieces of equipment, there is a dark speck. This is the spot where two men stand on one of the slanted ledges. Zooming in further, one of the men appears to be working with what looks like a jack hammer. Looks like a dangerous task to me.


The amount of work that has and will go into this creation, astounds me. From the infrastructure consisting of roads to allow access for heavy equipment to the safety measures required for handling explosives and working on the side of the mountain, it seems an impossible feat. All of this activity gave me a glimpse into the complexities of the making of Mount Rushmore.


In 1939, Henry Standing Bear, an Oglala Lakota chief, commissioned Korczak Ziolkowski to sculpt a memorial that would honor Crazy Horse, an iconic Native American who fought against the U.S. military in the Battle of Little Bighorn in June 1876.


Drawing on Monument Superimposed on Photo of Thunder Mountain


Korczak Ziolkowski began working on the project in 1947 with the first blast on June 3, 1948. In 1950, he married Ruth Ross who came to the Black Hills to work on the memorial in 1948 with a group of young volunteers. Korczak and Ruth had five girls and five boys.

What attracted the twenty-two-year-old woman from Connecticut to the Black Hills of South Dakota when the area lacked basic infrastructures? Why would she leave the comfort of her home for the wilds of the west? According to Wikipedia, Ruth first met Ziolkowski when she was thirteen. Had Ruth harbored a love for Korczak for nine years? Or did their love grow after her arrival?

When Korczak died in 1982, Ruth and her children took over the construction and many of the family members still work on the project keeping Korczak’s dream alive. The family completed Crazy Horse’s face in 1998 and work continues today.

Except for the gift shop, which is operated by a private company, the memorial, visitor complex, and all activities are conducted under Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation, a 501(c) 3 nonprofit organization. The organization files an IRS Form 990 and is audited annually. No federal or state funds are used to finance the construction of the monument. The cost of construction comes mainly from contributions and admission receipts.

Included with Admission

Admission includes a return trip at night to view the laser show. For an additional fee of $4.00, visitors can take a bus tour to the base of the mountain. Or, become a Crazy Horse Story Teller for $125.00 and travel to the construction site to see the work in progress. We opted out of the bus tour and visit to the construction site. We found plenty to look at in the visitor complex which includes the sculptor’s log home, studio, bronze showroom, and the artist’s workshop. Also, there is an orientation film and a 1/34 scale model of what the finished memorial will eventually look like if it is ever completed.

Dancing and Singing Demonstration on the Patio
This Frame Shows Colors From Nature Used in Weaving 
Native American Beaded Dress


A certain amount of controversy surrounds the monument, although not discussed at the visitor center, or at least not that I saw. Of utmost concern is the amount of time the memorial has taken to construct. Since 1948, the warrior’s face is the only portion of the monument that the Ziolkowski family has completed thus far. Work is currently underway on the outstretched hand and the horse’s mane and there does not seem to be an end date for completion of the entire structure.

The second controversy is the way Ziolkowski depicted the outstretched hand in the model with a pointing finger. In his article, Mistake on the Mountain, David B. Conrad stipulates “the traditional American Indian . . . does not point with the solitary index finger.” He cites three sources as evidence that Oglala Sioux, the same tribe as Crazy Horse, would point using his thumb, not a forefinger. Perhaps Conrad’s article had the desired effect of inspiring individuals to contact the Ziolkowski family so they could make the necessary corrections.

Model of Crazy Horse Monument with Thunder Mountain in the Background

Although Korczak Ziolkowski selected Crazy Horse as the model for the monument, photographs of the man do not exist so there is no way the memorial will represent his likeness. Ruth Ziolkowski emphasized the monument is a memorial to a race of people and not to just one man.

The fourth controversy is that descendants of Crazy Horse object to the use of their ancestor. They claim Chief Henry Standing Bear had no right to ask Ziolkowski to create the monument and feel that carving up the hills as a memorial is a desecration of their Indian culture.


After reading the stories of controversy, I understood why the woman I met might not have fond feelings toward the memorial or the family. But what about the “ripping off” comment? I dusted off my CPA hat and read the 2014 IRS Form 990. Yes, family members receive compensation for work they do for the organization. However, I did not see anyone receiving compensation that was out of line for the position they held within the organization or due to the size of the Foundation compared to non-profits of similar size. In addition, several outside directors determined compensation for the more highly compensated individuals. I was also pleased to see the organization receives regular audits of its financial statements.

Black Hills Nature Gates Captured our Curiosity
Close Up View of Nature Gates

We were glad we had visited the Crazy Horse Memorial. It is so much more than the carving on the mountain. The dedication of the family to see their father’s dream come alive was inspiring, the Native American arts and crafts were interesting, and the artifacts and historical significance were thought-provoking. I believe it is best at this point that the family continues their work. The partially carved up mountain would only be an eyesore in the beautiful Black Hills if they were to abandon Korczak’s dream. In the future, I’ll be watching the slow artistic progress as it unfolds on Thunderhead Mountain.

Safe Travels

Black Hills, South Dakota – Part II

With so many items on our “things to see and do” list we sure were glad we had opted for staying eight nights in the Black Hills. I suspect most tourists come to the Black Hills to gaze upon the granite carvings at Mount Rushmore and Thunderhead Mountain and we were among those tourists.

The Todds at Mount Rushmore on the Grand View Terrace

Mount Rushmore National Memorial

We arrived at 6:00 a.m. to get a jump on the crowds (added bonus: no parking fee at that hour). For a little over an hour, we had the run of the place to ourselves except for a few couples and small family groups that had similar plans. Awe-inspiring is what came to mind as we walked the Avenue of Flags on our way to the Grand View Terrace and stared up at the granite structure that depicts George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln.

Avenue of the Flags

Doane Robinson is credited with conceiving the idea to create an attraction that would bring visitors to his State of South Dakota and Gutzon Borglum was chosen as the sculptor. Although Robinson initially envisioned the depiction of western heroes such as Lewis & Clark, Red Cloud, and Buffalo Bill Cody, Borglum selected the four presidents he viewed as instrumental in preserving the United States and expanding its territory in the West.

Mount Rushmore

Borglum met with Doane Robinson in 1924 and 1925 Mount Rushmore was selected as the location. Construction work began in 1927. Working beside Borglum until his death in March 1941, was Borglum’s son, James Lincoln Borglum. Lincoln Borglum took on the responsibility of sculptor when his father died and congress declared the monument completed as is on October 31, 1941. The nation had to push aside artistic endeavors as it prepared for World War II.

The Presidential Trail gives visitors a close-up perspective of the memorial, like this picture of Washington through a narrow crevice in the rocks.

George Washington Seen Through a Crevice

The Presidential Trail is 0.6 miles long and contains 422 steps. A boardwalk with railings prevents visitors from straying from the trail.

Stairs along the Boardwalk
View of the Black Hills from the Presidential Trail

The amphitheater provides visitors with a different perspective of the memorial by illuminating it each night. We didn’t take advantage of the night-time event but we talked with other people who did and they were glad for the experience.

Amphitheater viewed from the Presidential Trail

Poor Teddy was in shadow most of the time we were at the memorial, but I did manage this close up that shows how the sculptor depicted the president’s glasses.

Teddy Roosevelt in Shadow

Abraham’s close up shows how catch-lights were created to bring out the eyes.

Abraham’s Close Up


One of the tasks of the National Park Service and the Mount Rushmore Society is to preserve the memorial from damage. As with any mountain, wind, snow, rain, heat and cold can cause erosion and change the shape of any stone. A monitoring system, attached to various sections of the memorial, records the air and surface temperature and detects movement of less than 0.0001 inches. Workers seal cracks with silicone and sprinkle granite dust to camouflage any repairs. The diligence to preservation should maintain the structure in good condition for generations.

We visited Mount Rushmore a few days later, paying the $5.00 parking fee ($10.00 for non-seniors) and contending with the crowds. We wanted to see what the visitor center had to offer and I had to get my National Park Passport stamped. Although the crowds were not too difficult to navigate, I much preferred our visit in the early morning when we didn’t have to vie for position to take photos.

Grand View Terrace


To learn more about Mount Rushmore, including park details and history of the monument, visit the Mount Rushmore National Park website.

Next up? Crazy Horse Memorial.

Safe Travels